A blacklist, also known as a blocklist or denylist, is a list of items or entities that are considered undesirable, untrustworthy, or harmful and are therefore blocked, restricted, or denied access to a system, service, or resource.
Blacklists can be used in various contexts and for different purposes, such as network security, email filtering, content moderation, or access control.
Some common uses of blacklists include:
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In email services, blacklists are used to filter out known spam sources, such as IP addresses, email addresses, or domain names associated with spam activities.
Emails originating from these sources are either automatically marked as spam or rejected.
In computer networks and firewalls, blacklists help block known malicious IP addresses or domain names to prevent unauthorized access, intrusion attempts, or distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.
Antivirus programs and other security software use blacklists to identify and block known malware, viruses, or potentially unwanted applications (PUAs) by comparing file signatures, URLs, or other indicators.
Websites, search engines, or content platforms may use blacklists to block access to or display specific content deemed inappropriate, offensive, or in violation of their policies.
In some systems or online services, blacklists can be used to prevent access by specific users, devices, or IP addresses that have been identified as problematic or abusive.
While blacklists can be effective in blocking unwanted or harmful activities, they also have limitations.
For example, blacklists may not always be up-to-date, and new threats or undesirable sources may not be immediately blocked.
Additionally, there is a risk of false positives, where legitimate items or entities are mistakenly blacklisted, causing unintended disruptions or access denials.
To mitigate these limitations, blacklists are often combined with other security measures, such as whitelists, greylists, or heuristic analysis, to create a more comprehensive and adaptive security approach.
"Amateurs hack systems, professionals hack people."
-- Bruce Schneier, a renown computer security professional