Forward Secrecy, also known as Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS), is a security feature that helps protect encrypted communication even if the encryption keys get compromised in the future.
It does this by using unique, temporary session keys for each individual communication session rather than relying on a single, long-term key.
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To give you an analogy, imagine you have a secret decoder ring for exchanging messages with your friends.
If someone gets their hands on your ring, they can decode all your past and future messages.
But with Perfect Forward Secrecy, it’s as if you use a new decoder ring for every message you send and then throw it away.
So, even if someone gets hold of one of your rings, they can only decode the message tied to that specific ring and not the others.
In the context of encrypted communication, such as HTTPS connections, Perfect Forward Secrecy ensures that even if a server’s private key gets compromised, past communication sessions remain secure because the session keys are not derived from the long-term private key.
This adds an extra layer of security, making it more difficult for attackers to decrypt past communication data.
"Amateurs hack systems, professionals hack people."
-- Bruce Schneier, a renown computer security professional